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Resources

The Big Naughty List

Definition and examples. Derivatives of Trigonometric, Inverse and Exponential and Logarithms Functions. General rules. Higher Derivatives. Implicit Differentiation Read more... 1011 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Basic Maths

Natural Numbers

Natural numbers are those used for counting and ordering. We use numbers in our daily lives more often than we realize. Know more about natural numbers with us. Read more... 174 words,πŸ•”1 minutes read, May 12, 2022.

Natural numbers II

Natural numbers are those used for counting and ordering. Know more about natural numbers and how to learn basic arithmetic fast and easy. Read more... 2205 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 13, 2022.

Elementary Maths

Learn Math with us easily. We are talking about divisors, prime numbers, prime factorization, gcd, lcm, numeric systems, and more. Read more... 2519 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 13, 2022.

Learn Geometry with GeoGebra

GeoGebra is a free dynamic mathematics software and it is especially created for teaching and learning. Let's learn basic Geometry with Geogebra. Read more... 2357 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

What is the best Maths software to learn and grow?

Do you have Maths homework? How do you know that your results are OK? This article is going to teach you how to use easy-to-use, free-of-charge software to check that your calculations are correct Read more... 970 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, Mar 22, 2022.

Fractions are really cool!

A fraction is a fancy way of representing the division of a whole into parts. Learn fractions with us in a fun and engaging way. Read more... 921 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Decimals, Percentages, Mixed numbers, and improper fractions

Decimals, fractions, and percentages are, basically, alternative ways of representing the same value. Learn fractions with us in a fun and engaging way. Read more... 891 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Sets and Operations on Sets

A set is a collection of things or objects, such as animals, plants, vowels. Learn all about sets and set operations. Read more... 1429 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 15, 2022.

Polynomials, Equations, and Systems of equations

The step by step guide to learn everything that you need to know about polynomials, equations, and systems of equations. Read more... 2785 words,πŸ•”14 minutes read, May 15, 2022.

Plotting functions

The step by step guide to learn everything that you need to know about functions and plotting their graphs. Read more... 3245 words,πŸ•”16 minutes read, May 16, 2022.

Plotting functions II

The step by step guide to learn everything that you need to know about functions and plotting their graphs. Increasing and decreasing functions. Maximum and Minimum. Asymptotes. Convex functions. Data Visualization. Read more... 3661 words,πŸ•”18 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Statistics

A step by step guide to analyzing and interpreting data using LibreOffice Calc and R. R is a free programming language and statistical software for analyzing and visualizing data. Read more... 3026 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 18, 2022.

Statistics II. Chi-squared Test, ANOVA

A step by step guide to analyzing and interpreting data using LibreOffice Calc and R. Let's go deeper and study the Chi-squared Test of Independence, one-way and two-way ANOVA, and two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Read more... 5104 words,πŸ•”24 minutes read, May 18, 2022.

Statistics III. T-tests, Correlations, Linear, and Multilinear Regression

This is the final article of a three-part blog series on analyzing and interpreting data. Today, we will learn about T-tests, correlations, lineal, and multilinear regressions. Read more... 5048 words,πŸ•”24 minutes read, May 19, 2022.

Mathematical analysis

A brief, quick and dirty, introduction to Mathematical Analysis with Maxima, Python, and WolframAlpha. We will learn about functions, limits, derivatives, integrals, and series. Read more... 2929 words,πŸ•”14 minutes read, May 20, 2022.

How to convert units

Unit conversion is the process of converting a quantity from one base or unit of measurement to another by multiplying or dividing it by a conversion factor. Read more... 837 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, Aug 10, 2017.

How to use a calculator and how to measure objects

A calculator is a small electronic device or software application that can perform mathematical calculations. Screen rulers let you measure objects easily. Read more... 1187 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, Aug 10, 2017.

Complex Numbers

The easy-to-follow step by step guide to learn everything that you need to know about complex numbers. Learn to check the validity of your calculations with Octave, Python, and WolframAlpha. Read more... 1955 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 21, 2022.

Vectors, matrices, and system of linear equations

A step by step guide to learn everything that you need to know about vectors and matrices, as well as solving linear equations with many examples. Read more... 3026 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 21, 2022.

LibreOffice Math and LaTeX

LaTeX is a high-quality typesetting system; it includes features designed for the production of technical and scientific documentation. Python and LaTeX. Render LaTeX math expressions in Hugo Read more... 1220 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 22, 2022.

Calculus

Function Fundamentals

Definition of a function. Evaluation of a function. Representing a function, e.g., verbally, numerical, algebraically, graphically, piecewise, recursive, parametric, integral, and series representation. The Vertical Line Test. Read more... 1216 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Intercepts of Graphs

Intercepts of Graphs. Definition, graph, properties, and solved examples. Graphing Lines Using Intercepts. Finding Intercepts Given the Graph. Read more... 1513 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Local Extrema

Local Extrema. Definition, graph, and solved examples. First Derivative Test. Second Derivative Test. Read more... 1217 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Asymptotes and End Behavior

Horizontal, vertical, and oblique asymptotes. Definitions and solved examples. End Behaviour of rational, exponential, and logarithm functions. Read more... 1802 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, Jul 14, 2022.

Increasing and Decreasing Functions

Monotonic functions. Increasing and Decreasing Functions. Intuitive and formal definition. How to find increasing and decreasing intervals. Solved examples. Plotting lineas and quadratic functions. Read more... 1754 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, Jul 14, 2022.

Algebra of functions

Algebra of functions. Definition and solved examples. The test point method. Read more... 1215 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Concavity and inflection points

Concave functions. Inflection points. Definition, graph, properties, and solved examples. Read more... 1613 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Exponential functions

Exponential. Definition and solved examples. Exponential Function derivate and series. Properties. Exponent rules. Read more... 1446 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Inverse functions

Inverse functions. Definition and solved examples. Derivate of inverse functions. The horizontal line test. Read more... 1335 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Limits

Intuitive and formal definition. How To Evaluate Limits From a Graph. Solved easy exercises. Solved examples with epsilon-delta proofs. Read more... 1666 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Logarithm functions

Logarithm function. Definition and solved examples. Logarithmic Properties. Derivate of the Logarithmic Function. Change of Base of Logarithm. Read more... 1468 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

One-Sided Limits

One-Sided Limits. Intuitive and formal definition. Solved examples. Read more... 1824 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Symmetry of Graphs.

Symmetry of Graphs. Definition and solved examples. Even and odd functions. Symmetry with respecto to the x-axis. Test for symmetries. Read more... 1290 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Types of functions.

Types of functions and criteria, such as lineal, quadratic, cubic, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, piecewise, rational, step, radical, Dirichlet, implicit functions, etc. Read more... 1494 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Absolute Extrema

Absolute Extrema. Definition and solved examples. Finding absolute extrema. Read more... 1098 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, Apr 14, 2022.

Continuity and discontinuity

Definition and examples. What is a Discontinuous Function? Types of Discontinuity. If a function f is differentiable at x = a, then f is continuous at x = a. Read more... 734 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Infinite Limits

Infinite Limits. Intuitive and formal definition. Solved examples. Vertical asymptotes. Read more... 1036 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Limits at infinity

Limits at infinity. Horizontal asymptotes. Intuitive and formal definition. Solved exercises. Solved examples with epsilon-delta proofs. Read more... 872 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Limits of Rational Functions

Limits of Rational Functions. Definition of Rational Functions. Solved examples. Read more... 1092 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Strategy in finding limits

Direct substitution. Factoring. Combining rational fractions. The conjugate method (Rationalization). The Squeeze Theorem. Trigonometric identities. L'HΓ΄pital's rule. Read more... 1897 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Limit Laws

The Limit Laws. Definition and solved examples. Proof of some basic limit rules. Read more... 1179 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Squeeze Theorem

The Squeeze Theorem. Intuitive Explanation. If a function f lies between two functions g and h, and the limits of each of them at a point are equal to L, then the limit of f at that point is L. Solved examples. Read more... 1237 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivate

Definition and solved exercises, 1/x, √x, |x|, xⁿ. Find the equation of the tangent line. Read more... 1707 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivate 2: Exponential and Logarithms

Derivate of Exponential and Logarithms functions. Definition, proofs, and solved examples. Read more... 1000 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivate 3. Trigonometric Functions.

Basic trigonometry. Angles measurements in degrees and radians. Common trigonometry formulas. Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions. Read more... 1716 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivate 4. Inverse functions.

Derivate of inverse functions. Inverse function theorem. Definition, proofs, and solved exercises. Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions. Read more... 1237 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivative Rules

Derivate General rules. Constant, Constant Multiple, Power, Sum, Product, quotient, and chain Rule. Read more... 1015 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Higher derivatives

Higher Order Derivatives. Definition, interpretation, notations, applications (Taylor series), and solved exercises. Read more... 1371 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Implicit Differentiation

Implicit Differentiation. Definition, interpretation, and solved exercises. Read more... 719 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Linear and Quadratic Approximation

Linear and quadratic approximation. Definition, geometrical interpretation, and solved exercises. How to Perform Linear and Quadratic Approximation. Read more... 1260 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Sketching the Graph of a function

Sketching the Graph of a function. Solved examples. Read more... 1467 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Sketching the Graph of a function II

General strategy to plot functions. Solved examples. Basic Transformations. Plotting inverse and piecewise functions. Read more... 1919 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem

Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem. Every subsequence of a convergent sequence converges and to the same limit. Read more... 1197 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Boundedness theorem

Boundedness theorem. Solved homework examples. Read more... 939 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivatives as Rates of Change

Applications of Derivatives. Related rates. Solved homework exercises. How to solve rates of change problems. Read more... 1536 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivatives as Rates of Change II

Applications of Derivatives. Related rates. Solved homework exercises. How to solve rates of change problems. Read more... 1519 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Derivatives as Rates of Change III

Applications of Derivatives. Related rates. Solved homework exercises. How to solve rates of change problems. Read more... 1544 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Fermat's Theorem

Fermat's Theorem. How to find Absolute Extrema given a function f on a close interval [a, b]. Solved homework exercises. Read more... 1573 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Newton's Method

Applications of Derivatives. Newton's Method. Basic principle. Solved homework exercises. Read more... 1189 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Optimization Problems

Applications of Derivatives. Optimization Problems. Solved homework exercises. Read more... 1532 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Optimization Problems II

Applications of Derivatives. Optimization Problems. Solved homework exercises. Steps to solve an optimization problem. Read more... 2070 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Rolle's and the Mean Value Theorems

Rolle's Theorem. The Mean Value Theorem. Increasing and decreasing functions. Solved homework exercises. Read more... 1734 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Th. Extreme Value. Nested Interval Property.

Extreme Value Theorem. Proof. Solved homework exercises. How to find Absolute Extrema given a function f on a close interval [a, b]. Axiom of Completeness/the least-upper-bound property. Nested Interval Property. Read more... 1590 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Antiderivates

Antiderivates or indefinite integrals. Definition and Examples. Uniqueness of Antiderivatives. Read more... 818 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Differential equations

Differential equations. Separation of variables. Integral Factors. Solved exercises. Read more... 1220 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Definite integrals. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Definite integrals. Definition and Examples. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Intuitive interpretation of Fundamental Theorem. Read more... 1498 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Properties of integrals

Properties of integrals. Integration by substitution or change of variables. Linearity of Integrals. Read more... 1242 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Fundamental Theorems of Calculus. MVT for Integrals

Alternative version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Mean Value Theorem for Integrals Read more... 1351 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Logarithm Defined as an Integral. The error function

Alternative definition of the natural logarithm as a definite integral. The error function. Read more... 999 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Areas between curves

Determine the area of a region between two curves by integrating with respect to the independent variable. Read more... 1222 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Average Value Theorem

Average Function Value. Average Value Theorem. Find the Average Value with the Mean Value Theorem for Integrals. Solved exercises. Read more... 1167 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Determining volumes

Determining Volumes by Slicing. Volumes of solid of revolution. The shell method. Washer method. Read more... 1317 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Determining volumes II

Determining Volumes by Slicing. Volumes of solid of revolution. The shell method. Washer method. Read more... 1195 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Determining volumes III

Determining Volumes by Slicing. Volumes of solid of revolution. The shell method. Washer method. Read more... 1240 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Numerical integration.

Riemann Sums. Trapezoid Sums. Simpson's Rule. Read more... 956 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Weighted Average

Weighted Average. Solved exercises. Average temperature. Calculus Probability Modeling. Read more... 1436 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Weighted Average II

Weighted Average. Solved exercises. Average temperature. Calculus Probability Modeling. Read more... 1445 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Integration of Trigonometric Functions

Integration of Trigonometric Functions. Formulas and solved examples. Trigonometry substitution for integrals. Completing the square. Read more... 1209 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Integration of Trigonometric Functions II

Integration of Trigonometric Functions. Formulas and solved examples. Trigonometry substitution for integrals. Completing the square. Read more... 814 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Arc lengths

Arc lengths. Surface Area. Solved exercises. Read more... 1197 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Integration by parts

Integration by parts. Solved homework exercises. Geometrical interpretation. LIATE mnemonic. Read more... 1107 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Integration by parts II

Integration by parts. Solved homework exercises. Geometrical interpretation. LIATE mnemonic. Read more... 821 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Integration of rational functions.

Integration of rational functions. Integration of improper rational fraction. Partial fraction decomposition. Distinct linear factors. Repeated linear factors. Read more... 1130 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Parametric curves. Polar Coordinates.

Parametric curves. Polar Coordinates. The area of the sector of a curve in polar coordinates. Read more... 1311 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

L'HΓ΄pital's Rule

L'HΓ΄pital's Rule. Motivation. General form. Solved examples. Evaluating Limits of Indeterminate Forms. Read more... 1020 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

L'HΓ΄pital's Rule II

L'HΓ΄pital's Rule. Motivation. General form. Solved examples. Evaluating Limits of Indeterminate Forms. Rates of growth and decay. Asymptotic Complexity. Read more... 1022 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Comparison Test For Improper Integrals

Comparison Test For Improper Integrals. Solved examples. Read more... 1124 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Improper integrals type 2

Improper integrals of second type. Read more... 1209 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Improper integration.

Improper integration. Limit Comparison. Improper integrals of second type. Read more... 1064 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Alternating Series

Definition. Alternating Series Test. Solved exercises. Read more... 1398 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Convergence/Divergence of series

Necessary condition for the convergence of a series. Divergence test. Integral Test For Convergence and Divergence of Series. Read more... 1547 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Direct & Limit Comparison test

Direct Comparison test. Limit Comparison Test. Solved homework exercises. Theorem p-series. Integral Comparison. Read more... 1588 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Infinite Series

Infinite Series. Arithmetic and Geometric series. Convergent and divergent series. Solved examples. Algebraic Properties of Convergent Series. Read more... 1485 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Power Series. Convergence, derivatives, and Integrals

Power Series. Power Series Convergence. Derivatives and Integrals of Power Series. Read more... 1684 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Root and Ratio Test

Root Test. Ratio Test. Solved examples. Read more... 1308 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Taylor’s Formula.

Taylor’s Formula. Taylor's theorem. Lagrange form of the remainder. Read more... 1614 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Abstract Algebra I. Introduction.

Writing Proofs

Direct Proof. Contrapositive. Proof by contradiction. Mathematical induction. Strong Form of Induction. Read more... 1718 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Natural Numbers. The Binomial Theorem.

The natural numbers. The binomial theorem. Well-ordering property. Pascal's Triangle. Read more... 2374 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Integers II. Euler's totient.

Ο†(1) = 1, Ο†(n) = nΒ° a, a≀n, (a, n) = 1. If p prime, Ο†(p) = p-1. Ο† is multiplicative, (a, b) = 1 β‡’ Ο†(ab) = Ο†(a)Ο†(b). The Method of Repeated Squares. Read more... 693 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, Jan 14, 2022.

Integers. Well Ordering Principle. Division & Euclidean Algorithm.

Well Ordering Principle. Divisibility Basics. Division Algorithm. Greatest Common Divisor. Least Common Multiple. Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. Euclidean Algorithm. Read more... 2616 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, Jan 14, 2022.

Sets. Algebra of sets

Sets. Algebra of sets. Distributive Laws. Double inclusion. De Morgan's laws. Truth tables. Cardinality. Properties of Set Algebra. Read more... 3117 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Relations

Cartesian Product. Relations. Definition, examples, and properties. Equivalence relations. Partitions. Equivalence Classes and Partitions. Read more... 3116 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, Jul 12, 2022.

Functions or Mappings

Definition, type, and properties. Counterexamples. Composition of functions. Types of functions. Injective, surjective, and bijective functions. Pigeonhole principle. Read more... 1580 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Functions or Mappings II

Composition of functions. Properties of Composition of Functions. Inverse functions. Cardinality of sets. Cantor's Theorem. A function is bijective if and only if has an inverse. Read more... 2461 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Abstract Algebra II. Group Theory.

Groups. Binary Operations.

Binary Operations. Groups. Definition and examples. Read more... 2158 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 15, 2022.

Groups II. Properties.

Order of Groups & elements. Group properties. Uniqueness of identity and inverses. Cancellation property. Left inverse for all is right inverse. The shoe and sock principle. ax = b and xa = b have unique solutions in G. The laws of exponents for groups. Read more... 1751 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Groups III. Symmetries. Group Actions.

(ab)Β² = aΒ²bΒ² β‡’ ab = ba. If every non-identity element of G has order 2 β‡’ G Abelian. Cayley Tables. Indeed group theory is the mathematical language of symmetry. Read more... 1705 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Subgroups.

Subgroups. Subgroup tests (aΒ·b⁻¹∈H). Finite subset are subgroups β†­ closed. H ≀ K ≀ G β‡’ H ≀ G. H ≀ G, L ≀ G, β‡’ H∩L ≀ G. The cyclic subgroup generated by a ⟨a⟩. Read more... 2093 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 18, 2022.

Center, Centralizers, & Normalizers.

Centralizers are subgroups. The center of a group is the set of elements that commute with all the elements of G. Z(G) ≀ G. Read more... 1077 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Conjugate of subgroups. Product of group subsets.

G Abelian, H₁ is conjugate Hβ‚‚ β†­ H₁ = Hβ‚‚. G Abelian, g₁ is conjugate gβ‚‚ β†­ g₁ = gβ‚‚. G group, g₁ is a conjugate of gβ‚‚ β‡’ |g₁| = |gβ‚‚|. H ≀ G β‡’ H⁻¹ = H. HK ≀ G β†­ HK = KH. |HK| = |H||K|/|H∩K|. Read more... 1452 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Cyclic Groups

Cyclic Groups. If |a| = ∞, a^i=a^j β†­ i = j. Otherwise, ⟨a⟩ = {1, a, aΒ²,Β·Β·Β·, a^(n-1)} distinct, a^i=a^j β†­ n | (i -j). |a| = |⟨a⟩| = {1, a, aΒ²,Β·Β·Β·, a^(n-1)}. Let a ∈ G, |a|< ∞, a^m = e β†­ |a| | m Read more... 2038 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cyclic Groups II. Fundamental Theorem.

Cyclic group β‡’ Abelian. Fundamental Theorem of Cyclic Groups. Subgroups of cyclic groups are cyclic. If ⟨a⟩ = n, H ≀ ⟨a⟩ β‡’ |H| | n. For each positive divisor k of n, βˆƒ! H ≀ ⟨a⟩, |H| = k, namely ⟨a^(n/k)⟩. G = ⟨a⟩ β‡’ G ≋ β„€ (|G|< ∞) or G ≋ β„€n. ⟨a^k⟩ = ⟨a^gcd(n,k)⟩. Read more... 2797 words,πŸ•”14 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Symmetric Groups

Permutation Groups. Properties of Permutations. |Sx| = |X|! Every permutation can be written as a product of disjoint cycles. Disjoint Cycles Commute. The order of a permutation = lcm(lengths of the disjoint cycles). Read more... 2486 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Symmetric Groups II

Every permutation is a product of 2-cycles. A permutation cannot be written as a product of both an odd and an even number of 2-cycles. The Alternating Group An ≀ Sn. |An| = n/2 . Read more... 1092 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The dihedral group

s reflection, srᡏs⁻¹ = r⁻ᡏ. Dβ‚™ = {e, r, rΒ²,..., rⁿ⁻¹, s, rs, rΒ²s,..., rⁿ⁻¹s} = ⟨r, s | rⁿ = sΒ² = e, rs = srⁿ⁻¹⟩. |Dβ‚™| = 2n. rᡏs = srⁿ⁻ᡏ, 1 ≀ k ≀ n-1. Read more... 2298 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Isomorphisms. Cayley's Theorem.

Two groups are isomorphic if there exist a bijective homomorphism, i.e., a one-to-one and onto map such that the group operation is preserved. Cayley's Theorem. Every group is isomorphic to a subgroup of a symmetric group. Read more... 2103 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 23, 2022.

Isomorphisms II. Properties.

Isomorphism carries the identity & generator (G = ⟨a⟩ β†­ G' = ⟨Φ(a)⟩), Ξ¦(aⁿ) = Ξ¦(a)ⁿ, preserves commutativity and order (|a| = |Ξ¦(a)|), corresponding equations have the same number of solutions. Ξ¦ G β†’ G' isomorphism β‡’ Φ⁻¹ isomorphism, G Abelian/Cyclic β†­ G' Abelian/Cyclic. Ξ¦ isomorphism, H ≀ G β‡’ Ξ¦(H) ≀ G' Read more... 1546 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Automorphisms

Inner Automorphisms. Aut(G) and Inn(G) are both groups. Inn(G) ◁ Aut(G). Aut(β„€n) ≋ Un and |Aut(β„€n)| = Ξ¦(n) where Ξ¦ is Euler's toilet function. Read more... 1767 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 12, 2022.

Partially Ordered Sets. Hasse Diagrams.

A partial order set is a subset of the Cartesian product βŠ† X x X such that is reflexive, antisymmetric, and transitive. Hasse Diagrams. Read more... 982 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Roots of Unity.

z = x + iy = r(cosΞΈ + isinΞΈ). Euler's Formula, z = r(cosΞΈ + iΒ·sinΞΈ) = re^(iΞΈ). ΞΎβ‚™ = e^(2Ο€/n) is a primitive nth root of unity. Zβ‚™ = the set of all nth roots of unity = ⟨ξ⟩ ≀ β„‚*. The circle group SΒΉ = {z ∈ β„‚* | |z| = 1} ≀ C* which contains Zβ‚™. Read more... 1558 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cosets

Definition, examples, and properties of cosets. a ∈ aH. aH = H β†­ a∈H. aH = bH β†­ a ∈ bH. aH = bH or aH ∩ bH = βˆ…. aH = bH β†­ a⁻¹b ∈ H. βˆ€g∈G, |H| = |gH|. βˆ€a, b∈ G, |aH| = |bH|. aH = Ha β†­ H = aHa⁻¹. aH ≀ G β†­ a ∈ H. Read more... 2208 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cosets II

H ≀ G β‡’ g₁H = gβ‚‚H β†­ Hg₁⁻¹ = Hg₂⁻¹↭ g₁H βŠ† gβ‚‚H β†­ g₁ ∈ gβ‚‚H β†­ g₁⁻¹gβ‚‚ ∈ H. The quotient set, G/H = {aG | a ∈ G}. The index of H in G, [G:H] = |G/H|. Let H ≀ G β‡’ [G/H] = [H\G] Read more... 1132 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Lagrange's Theorem

Lagrange's Theorem. |H| | |G|. |a| divides |G| Classification of Groups of Order 2p, G ≋ β„€2p or Dp. Read more... 2521 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Orbits and Stabilizers

Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem. G a finite group of permutations of a set S, βˆ€i ∈ S, |G| = |orb(i)| |stab(i)| Read more... 2843 words,πŸ•”14 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Direct Products

A group of order 4 is isomorphic to β„€β‚„ or β„€β‚‚ βŠ• β„€β‚‚. Any cyclic group of even order has exactly one element of order 2. The direct product of Abelian groups is also Abelian. |(g₁, gβ‚‚,..., gβ‚™)| = lcm(|g₁|, |gβ‚‚|,...,|gβ‚™|) Read more... 3174 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Direct Products II

If r | m and s | n, β„€m βŠ• β„€n has a subgroup isomorphic to β„€r βŠ• β„€s. Criterion for the direct product to be cyclic, G βŠ• H is cyclic β†­ (|G|, |H|) = 1. m = n₁·nβ‚‚Β·Β·Β·nβ‚–, β„€m ≋ β„€n₁ βŠ• β„€nβ‚‚ βŠ•Β·Β·Β·βŠ• β„€nβ‚– β†­ (ni, nj) = 1βˆ€ i,j. m = n₁·nβ‚‚Β·Β·Β·nβ‚–, βˆ€i, j, i β‰  j, (ni, nj) = 1) β‡’ U(m) β‰ˆ U(n₁)βŠ•U(nβ‚‚)βŠ•Β·Β·Β·βŠ•U(nβ‚–). Every group U(n) is isomorphic to the external direct product of cyclic groups. Read more... 2448 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Integers modulo n. The Group of Units. Fermat’s Theorem.

The Integers modulo n. An integer has a multiplicative inverse modulo n β†­ (a, n) = 1. Uβ‚™ = {a ∈ Zβ‚™ | gcd(a, n)=1}, |Uβ‚™| = Ο†(n). The subgroup generated by an element k, k | n, Uβ‚–(n) = {x ∈ U(n) | x mod k = 1} ≀ U(n). m = n₁·nβ‚‚Β·Β·Β·nβ‚–, βˆ€i, j, i β‰  j, (ni, nj) = 1) β‡’ U(m) β‰ˆ U(n₁)βŠ•U(nβ‚‚)βŠ•Β·Β·Β·βŠ•U(nβ‚–). Euler's theorem, (a, n) = 1 then a^Ξ¦(n)≑ 1 (mod n). Fermat, p prime, p Ι« a, β‡’ a^(pβˆ’1) ≑ 1 (mod p). βˆ€a, a^p ≑ a (mod p) Read more... 2290 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cauchy's Theorem for Abelian Groups

G/Z(G)≋Inn(G). Cauchy's Theorem for Abelian Groups, G a finite Abelian group, |G| = n, p prime, p | n β‡’ G contains an element of order p. |G| = pΒ², p prime β‡’ G β‰ˆ β„€β‚šΒ² or β„€β‚š βŠ• β„€β‚š and G is Abelian. Read more... 1724 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Internal Direct Product

Internal Direct Product, G = H x K β†­ H and K ◁ G, H ∩ K = {e}, G = HK. H₁ x Hβ‚‚ x Β·Β·Β· x Hβ‚™ ≋ H₁ βŠ• Hβ‚‚ βŠ• Β·Β·Β· βŠ• Hβ‚™. Read more... 1533 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Normal Subgroups

N ◁ G β†­ βˆ€a∈G, aH = Ha β†­ gHg⁻¹ βŠ† H β†­ gHg⁻¹ = H. Every subgroup of an Abelian group is normal. |G:H|=2 β‡’ H ◁ G. Z(G) ◁ G. Aβ‚™ ◁ Sβ‚™. H ◁ G β‡’ G/H = {aH | a ∈ G} ≀ G, G/H is the factor or quotient group of G and H of order [G:H]. Read more... 2644 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Normal Subgroups II

N ◁ G β†­ βˆ€a∈G, aH = Ha β†­ gHg⁻¹ βŠ† H β†­ gHg⁻¹ = H. Aβ‚„ has no subgroups of order 6. If G/Z(G) is cyclic β‡’ G is Abelian. Let G be a non-Abelian group, |G| = pq, p and q primes β‡’ Z(G) = {e}. Read more... 2696 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Quaternion group

The quaternion group is a non Abelian group. Qβ‚ˆ ≀ GLβ‚‚(β„‚). Qβ‚ˆ = {1, -1, i, -i, j, -j, k, -k} = ⟨-1, i, j, k | (-1⟩² = 1, iΒ² = jΒ² = kΒ² = ijk = -1⟩. Z(Qβ‚ˆ) = ⟨-1⟩ = {1, -1} ◁ Qβ‚ˆ. Every proper subgroup is Abelian, ⟨i⟩ ◁ Qβ‚ˆ. Qβ‚ˆ/⟨i⟩ = {⟨i⟩, j⟨i⟩} ≋ β„€β‚‚ Read more... 988 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Group Homomorphism

Ξ¦ is homomorphism β†­ Ξ¦(aΒ·b)=Ξ¦(a)Β·Ξ¦(b). Ξ¦(e) = e'. Ξ¦(aⁿ) = Ξ¦(a)ⁿ. |Ξ¦(a)| divides |a|. Ker(Ξ¦) ≀ G. Ξ¦(a) = Ξ¦(b) β†­ aKer(Ξ¦) = bKer(Ξ¦). If Ξ¦(a) = a' β‡’ Φ⁻¹(a') = aKer(Ξ¦). Ξ¦(H) ≀ G'. H is cyclic/Abelian β‡’ Ξ¦(H) cyclic/Abelian. H ◁ G β‡’ Ξ¦(H) ◁ Ξ¦(G). Read more... 3753 words,πŸ•”18 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Group Homomorphism II

Ξ¦ is injective β†­ Ker(Ξ¦) = {e}. If |Ker(Ξ¦)| = n β‡’ Ξ¦ is an n-to-1 mapping from G onto Ξ¦(G). |H| = n β‡’ |Ξ¦(H)| | n. K ≀ G' β‡’ Φ⁻¹(K) ≀ G. K ◁ G' β‡’ Φ⁻¹(K) ◁ G, and in particular Ker(Ξ¦) ◁ G. Ξ¦ onto and Ker(Ξ¦) = {e} β‡’ Ξ¦ is an isomorphism. Read more... 1813 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Rotations of a regular tetrahedron

The group of rotational symmetries of a tetrahedron is isomorphic to the alternating group of even permutations on four elements, A4. Read more... 1038 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Abelian Groups. Fundamental Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups

Cauchy's Theorem. p prime, p| |G|, G Abelian β‡’ G has an element of order p. G finite Abelian p-group (βˆ€g∈G, |g| = pᡏ for some k) β†­ |G| = pⁿ for some n. G finite Abelian group, m = |G| = p₁ʳ¹ βŠ• pβ‚‚Κ³Β² βŠ• Β·Β·Β· βŠ• pₖʳᡏ where p₁, pβ‚‚, Β·Β·Β·, pα΅£ distinct primes that divides m β‡’ G ≋ G₁ x Gβ‚‚ x Β·Β·Β· Gα΅£ with |Gα΅’| = pᡒʳⁱ Read more... 1761 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

First Isomorphism Theorem

1st Isomorphism, Ξ¦ homomorphism, G/Ker(Ξ¦) ≋ Ξ¦(G), defined by gKer(Ξ¦) β†’ Ξ¦(g). If Ξ¦ is a homomorphism from a finite group G to G' β‡’ |Ξ¦(G)| divides |G| and |G'| Read more... 1893 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Fundamental Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups II

A finite, then A βŠ• B ≋ A βŠ• C iff B ≋ C. Every finite Abelian group is isomorphic to β„€β‚šβ‚βΏΒΉ βŠ• β„€β‚šβ‚‚βΏΒ² βŠ• Β·Β·Β· βŠ• β„€β‚šβ‚–βΏα΅ Read more... 1729 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Fundamental Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups. Exercises.

A finite, then A βŠ• B ≋ A βŠ• C iff B ≋ C. Every finite Abelian group is isomorphic to β„€β‚šβ‚βΏΒΉ βŠ• β„€β‚šβ‚‚βΏΒ² βŠ• Β·Β·Β· βŠ• β„€β‚šβ‚–βΏα΅ Read more... 1510 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Normalizer/Centralizer Theorem.

The Normalizer/Centralizer Theorem. H ≀ G. Consider the mapping Ξ³, N(H) β†’ Aut(H), x β†’ Ξ¦β‚“, where Ξ¦β‚“ is the inner automorphism induced by x, Ξ¦β‚“(h) = ghg⁻¹ β‡’ C(H) ◁ N(H) and N(H)/C(H) ≋ Aut(H). Every normal subgroup is the kernel of a homomorphism of G. Read more... 1433 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Abstract Algebra III. Ring Theory.

Rings

Ring (R, +, Β·) = close (+, Β·) + (R, +) Abelian group + Associative + Distributivity. A ring with unity (GL(n, ℝ)) = (R, Β·), 1 ∈ R. Commutative ring (2β„€) = (R, Β·) commutative. Integral Domain (β„€) = Commutative ring with unity + ab = 0 β‡’ a = 0 or b= 0. Division ring (Qβ‚ˆ) = Ring with unity, βˆ€a∈R, aβ‰ 0, βˆƒa⁻¹ s.t. a⁻¹a = aa⁻¹ = 1. Field = Commutative division ring. Read more... 1974 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Rings II. Properties. Subrings.

a0 = 0a = 0. a(-b) = (-a)b = -(ab). -(-a) = a. -(a +b) = -a + (-b). -(a -b) = -a + b. (-a)(-b) = ab. a(b - c) = ab - ac, (b-c)a = ba - ca. If R has unity, then (-1)a = -a, (-1)(-1) = 1, commutative, and it is unique. If an element has a multiplicative inverse, then it is unique. R is commutative β†­ (a+b)Β² = aΒ² +2ab + bΒ². Every boolean ring (βˆ€a∈R, aΒ² = a) is commutative. If a has a multiplicative inverse β‡’ a is not a zero divisor. Read more... 1951 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Ideals and Factor Rings

Ideal, βˆ€r ∈ R, a ∈ A, ra ∈ A and ar ∈ A β†­ a-b ∈ A and ra ∈ A, ar ∈ A. R commutative ring with unity, ⟨a⟩ = R β†­ a ∈ R is a unit. A principal ideal is an ideal generated by a single element ⟨a⟩ = {ra| r ∈ R}. Every ideal of β„€ is a principal ideal. R ring, I subring, R/I = {r + I | r ∈ R} is a ring β†­ I is an ideal of R. I, J ideals β‡’ I ∩ J, I + J, IJ are ideals. Read more... 3758 words,πŸ•”18 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Ideals. Exercises about rings

An element a ∈ R is nilpotent if xⁿ = 0 for some n ∈ β„•, n > 0. R commutative ring, A βŠ† R, the annihilator of A is Ann(A) = {r ∈ R| βˆ€a ∈ A, rΒ·a = 0}. R commutative ring, ideal I βŠ† R, the radical of I, rad(I) = √I = {r ∈ R | βˆƒn ∈ β„•, rⁿ ∈ I}. If ⟨n⟩ is a principal ideal of the ring β„€, n = p₁ᡏ¹ p₂ᡏ²··· pᡣᡏʳ, √⟨n⟩ = ⟨p₁·pβ‚‚Β·Β·Β·pᡣ⟩. Read more... 1958 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Prime and Maximal ideals

Prime ideal, βˆ€a, b ∈ R, ab ∈ A β‡’ a ∈ A or b ∈ A. Maximal ideal A, βˆ€B ideal, A βŠ† B βŠ† R β‡’ B = A or B = R. The prime ideals of β„€ are {0} and pβ„€ where p is prime. R commutative ring with unity, A ideal β‡’ A is prime β†­ R/A integral domain. R commutative ring with unity, A ideal β‡’ R/A is a field β†­ A is maximal. Read more... 3492 words,πŸ•”17 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Characteristic of a ring.

char(R) = the smallest n, nx = x + x + Β·Β·β‚™Β· + x = 0 βˆ€x ∈ R, char(β„€) = char(β„š) = char(ℝ) = char(ℝ) = 0, char(β„€β‚™) = n. R ring with unity, char(R) = ord(1). Integral multiple of ring, βˆ€ x ∈ R, (mΒ·x)β—‹(nΒ·x) = (mΒ·n)Β·(xβ—‹x). D integral domain, char(D) = 0 or p. R finite, char(R) | |R|. Read more... 1908 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Integral domains.

An integral domain is a commutative ring with unity and no zero-divisors, β„€β‚š, p prime. If R integral domain, a β‰  0 and ab = ac β‡’ b = c. Every field is an integral domain. Every finite integral domain is a field. Read more... 1806 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Ring Homomorphisms

Ξ¦ ring homomorphism β†­ Ξ¦(a + b) = Ξ¦(a) + Ξ¦(b), Ξ¦(ab) = Ξ¦(a)Ξ¦(b), Ξ¦(1) = 1. Ξ¦(0) = 0, Ξ¦(-1) = -1, Ξ¦(nr) = nΞ¦(r), Ξ¦(rⁿ) = (Ξ¦(r))ⁿ, Ξ¦(-r) = -Ξ¦(r), βˆ€A subring of R, Ξ¦(A) is subring of S. B ideal of S, Φ⁻¹(B) is ideal of R. R commutative β‡’ Ξ¦(R) commutative. Ξ¦ onto, 1 ∈ R β‡’ Ξ¦(1) is unit S. Ξ¦ injective β†­ Ker(Ξ¦) = {0}. Ξ¦ isomorphism β‡’ Φ⁻¹ isomorphism. Ker(Ξ¦) ideal in R. Read more... 3147 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Isomorphism Theorems for Rings

(R, +, Β·) ring, A ideal of R. (R/A, +, Β·) is the quotient ring of R by A. Every ideal is the kernel of a ring homomorphism. 1st Theorem, Ξ¦ ring homomorphism, R/Ker(Ξ¦) ≋ Ξ¦(R). 2nd. I subring and J ideal of R β‡’ I+J subring, I∩J ideal of I, I/I∩J ≋ I+J/J. Read more... 1770 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Isomorphism Theorems for Rings II

There is a unique ring homomorphism from the ring of integers to any ring. Every ring has a subring isomorphic to either β„€ or β„€n. Every ring has a subring isomorphic to either β„€p or β„š. 3rd. isomorphism theorem, R a ring with ideals I βŠ† J βŠ† R, (R/I)/(J/I) ≋ R/J Read more... 2006 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Polynomial Rings. Division Algorithm.

R[x] is a ring. D commutative ring with 1, D integral domain β†­ D[x] integral domain. R integral domain, f, g nonzero polynomials in R[x] β‡’ deg(fg) = deg(f) + deg(g). R integral domain β‡’ units of R[x] = units of R. I ideal of R, R[x]/I[x] ≋ (R/I)[x]. P βŠ† R, P prime ideal β†­ P[x] βŠ† R[x], P[x] prime ideal. Division Algorithm. F field, βˆ€f(x), g(x) ∈ F[x], g(x) β‰  0 β‡’ βˆƒ!q(x), r(x) ∈ F[x] s.t. f(x) = g(x)q(x) + r(x) and either r(x) = 0 or deg(r(x)) < deg(g(x)). Read more... 2238 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Field of Quotients and More Exercises

Let D be an integral domain. Then, there exists a field F that contains a subring isomorphic to D. β„š[√2] is a field. Find ring isomorphisms Ξ¦, β„š[√3] β†’ β„š[√3]. The quadratic fields β„š[√2] and β„š[√3] are not isomorphic. Read more... 2659 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Polynomial Rings II. Principal ideal domains.

g | f β†­ r = 0. Factor Theorem, F field, f ∈ F[x], Ξ± ∈ F zero or root of f (f(Ξ±) = 0) β†­ (x -Ξ±)|f(x) β†­ βˆƒq ∈ F[x], f(x) = (x - Ξ±)q(x). def(f) = n β‡’ f has at most n distinct zeros in F, counting multiplicity. Principal ideal ⟨a⟩ = Ra = {ra | r ∈ R}. R is PID β†­ every ideal is principal, e.g., β„€, F (⟨0⟩, ⟨1⟩ = F) and F[x] (F field) Read more... 2576 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

⟨p(x)⟩ maximal iff irreducible. Unique Factorization in β„€[x]

F field, p(x) ∈ F[x]. ⟨p(x)⟩ is a maximal ideal in F[x] β†­ p(x) is irreducible over F. p(x) irreducible over F β†­ F[x]/⟨p(x)⟩ field. If p(x) irreducible over F field, p(x)|a(x)b(x) β‡’ p(x)|a(x) or p(x)|b(x). p(x) ∈ β„€[x], p(x) =[unique factorization] b₁bβ‚‚Β·Β·Β·bβ‚›p₁(x)pβ‚‚(x)Β·Β·Β·pβ‚˜(x), where bα΅’'s irreducible polynomials of degree 0, and the pα΅’(x)'s irreducible polynomials of positive degree. Read more... 2329 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Factorization of Polynomials

F field, f(x)∈F[x], deg(f) = 2/3 β‡’ f reducible β†­ f has a zero in F. content(aβ‚™xⁿ+aₙ₋₁xⁿ⁻¹+Β·Β·Β·aβ‚€) = gcd(aβ‚™, aₙ₋₁,Β·Β·Β·, aβ‚€). Gauss Lemma. D UFD, f(x), g(x) ∈ D[x], content(fΒ·g) = content(f)Β·content(g). Corollary. D UFD, F = Frac(D), f ∈ D[x], βˆƒΞ±, Ξ² ∈ F[x], f = Ξ±Β·Ξ² β‡’ βˆƒa, b ∈ D[x], deg(Ξ±) = deg(a), deg(Ξ²) = deg(b), and f(x) = aΒ·b. A non-constant p ∈ β„€[x] is irreducible in β„€[x] β†­ p is irreducible in β„š[x] and primitive in β„€[x]. D is a UFD β†­ D[x] is a UFD Read more... 2222 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Irreducibility Tests

Mod p Test, f ∈ β„€[x], f' ∈ β„€β‚š[x] by reducing coefficients mod p. f' irreducible over β„€β‚š & deg(f') = deg(f) β‡’ f irreducible over β„š. Eisenstein Criterion, p prime, f(x) = aβ‚™xⁿ+aₙ₋₁xⁿ⁻¹+Β·Β·Β·+ aβ‚€ ∈ β„€[x], deg(f) β‰₯ 1, p|aβ‚€, p|a₁,Β·Β·Β·, p|aβ‚™βˆ’β‚, pΙ«aβ‚™, pΒ²Ι«aβ‚€ β‡’ f irreducible β„š. Ξ¦β‚š(x) =xᡖ⁻¹/x-1 = xᡖ⁻¹+xᡖ⁻²+Β·Β·Β· +1 irreducible β„š. Rational root test, r/s rational solution of f satisfies r|aβ‚€ and s|aβ‚™ Read more... 2141 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Divisibility in Integral Domains.

a|b if βˆƒc∈R, b = ac. a & b are associates if a = ub, u = unit of D. a is irreducible if when a = bc β‡’ b or c is a unit. a is prime if when a|bc β‡’ a|b or a|c. D integral domain, prime β‡’ irreducible. PID, irreducible β†­ prime. β„€, F[x], where F field are PID, but β„€[x] is not PID. Read more... 2248 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Euclidean and Noetherian domain

Noetherian domain = integral domain + ascending chain condition, Iβ‚βŠ† Iβ‚‚ βŠ† Β·Β·Β· βˆƒN ∈ β„•, Iβ‚™ = IΙ΄, βˆ€n β‰₯ Ι΄. Every PID satisfies the ascending chain condition. Every PID is a UFD. Let F be a field β‡’ F[x] is a UFD. Euclidean domain is an integral domain + (i)βˆ€a,b ∈ D, aβ‰ 0, bβ‰ 0, N(a) ≀ N(ab), (ii)βˆ€a,b ∈ D, bβ‰ 0, βˆƒq,r ∈D, a = bq + r, r = 0 or N(r) < N(b). Euclidean Domain β‡’ PID β‡’ UFD. Read more... 2883 words,πŸ•”14 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Unique Factorization Domains

An integral domain D is a UFD if every non-zero non-unit element of D can be written uniquely (order and units) as a product of irreducibles. D PID, (i) a|b β†­ ⟨b⟩ βŠ† ⟨a⟩; (ii) a and b are associates β†­ ⟨b⟩ = ⟨a⟩; (iii) a is a unit β†­ ⟨a⟩ = D. R UFD, a ∈ R, a irreducible β†­ a prime. D PID, ⟨p⟩ is a maximal ideal β†­ p is irreducible. D PID, p ∈ D irreducible β‡’ prime. Read more... 1743 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Vector Spaces

V is a vector space over F if (V, +) is an Abelian group and βˆ€a, b ∈ F, u, v ∈V, a(v + u) = av + au, (a + b)v = av + bv; a(bv) = (ab)v; 1v = v. U is a subspace of V is U is also a vector space over F under the operations of V β†­ (U, +)≀(V, +), βˆ€u∈U,α∈F, Ξ±u∈U β†­ Ξ±u, u + v ∈ U. Subspace of V spanned by v₁, vβ‚‚, Β·Β·Β·, vβ‚™, span{v₁, vβ‚‚, Β·Β·Β·, vβ‚™} = {α₁v₁ + Ξ±β‚‚vβ‚‚ + Β·Β·Β· + Ξ±β‚™vβ‚™| Ξ±α΅’ ∈ F}. Read more... 1522 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Vector Spaces II

S is linearly independent if α₁v₁ + Ξ±β‚‚vβ‚‚ + Β·Β·Β· + Ξ±β‚™vβ‚™ = 0 β‡’ α₁ = Ξ±β‚‚ = Β·Β·Β· = Ξ±β‚™ = 0. S l.i. β†­ βˆƒvα΅’ linear combination of the others. B basis if linearly independent and span{v₁, vβ‚‚, Β·Β·Β·, vβ‚™} = V. B is a basis of V β†­ βˆ€v ∈ V can be written uniquely as a linear combination of elements of the basis. If B = {v₁, vβ‚‚, Β·Β·Β·, vβ‚™} is a basis for V, dim(V) =n. Every basis has the same number of vectors. Read more... 2063 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Abstract Algebra IV. Field Theory.

Field Theory

char(F) = the smallest p s.t. pΒ·1 = 1+1+Β·Β·β‚šΒ·Β·+1= 0 if such a p exists, or char(F) = 0. char(F) = 0 or p, prime. F βŠ† E βŠ† K tower of fields. If [K:E] < ∞ & [E:F] < ∞ β‡’ [K:F] < ∞ & [K:F] =[K:E][E:F]. Οƒ :F β†’ E embedding of fields β‡’ F βŠ† K, Οƒ can be extended to an isomorphism Οƒ* :K β†’ E. Krnoecker's Theorem. F field, f(x) non-constant polynomial in F[x] β‡’ βˆƒ an extension E of F in which f(x) has a root. Th, p(x) ∈ F[x] irreducible, u root of p(x) in an extension E of F β‡’ F(u) = F[u] = {bβ‚€ + b₁u + Β·Β·Β· + bβ‚˜uᡐ ∈ E | bβ‚€ + b₁x + Β·Β·Β· + bβ‚˜xᡐ ∈ F[x]}. If degree(p) = n, (1, u, Β·Β·Β·, uⁿ⁻¹) forms a basis of F(u) over F and [F(u):F] = n. Read more... 3336 words,πŸ•”16 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Field Theory II

Ξ± ∈ E is algebraic over F if βˆƒp(x) ∈ F[x] s.t. p(Ξ±) = 0. E/F is algebraic if βˆ€e ∈ E, e is algebraic over F. E/F extension field, u ∈ E algebraic over F, p(x) ∈ F[x] be a polynomial of least degree such that p(u) = 0 (the minimal polynomial of u over E) β‡’ p(x) is irreducible over F; if g(x) ∈ F[x], g(u) = 0 β‡’ p(x) | g(x); βˆƒ! monic polynomial p(x) ∈ F[x] of least degree such that p(u) = 0. If E/F finite extension β‡’ E/F algebraic extension. Th. E/F extension, α∈ E algebraic over F β‡’ F(Ξ±)/F algebraic extension, [F(Ξ±):F)] = n = deg(p(x)) where p is the minimal polynomial of Ξ±. Read more... 1947 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Splitting Fields

K/F, L/F extension fields, Ξ± ∈ K algebraic over F, Οƒ :K β†’ L F-homomorphism of fields β‡’ Οƒ(Ξ±) is algebraic over F. f(x) ∈ F[x], K/F s.f. if f(x) = c(x -α₁)(x -Ξ±β‚‚) Β·Β·Β· (x -Ξ±β‚™), Ξ±α΅’ ∈ K, K = F(α₁, Β·Β·Β·, Ξ±β‚™). Existence of Splitting Fields, F field, f(x) ∈ F[x] β‡’ βˆƒ s.f. E for f(x) over F. Th, F field, p(x) ∈ F[x] irreducible polynomial over F, deg(p(x)) = n. If a is a root of p(x) in some extension E of F, then F(a) ≋ F[x]/⟨p(x)⟩ & F(a) is a vector space over F with a basis {1, a, Β·Β·Β·, aⁿ⁻¹}. Degree of Splitting Field. F field, p ∈ F[x], deg(p) = n β‡’ βˆƒK/F s.f., [K:F] ≀ n! Read more... 3134 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Extension Theorems

Ο•:Eβ†’F isom, K/E, Ξ± ∈ K algebraic over E with minimal polynomial p(x). L/F, Ξ² ∈ L root of Ξ¦(p(x)) in F[x] β‡’ Ο• extends to !isomorphism Ο•':E(Ξ±)β†’F(Ξ²), Ο•'(Ξ±)=Ξ², Ο•' agrees with Ξ¦ on E. Th. Ο•:Eβ†’F isom, p(x)∈E[x], p(x)β†’q(x)∈F[x]. K, L s.f. of p(x) and q(x) β‡’ Ο• extends to an isomorphism ψ:Kβ†’L, ψ agrees with Ο• on E. Th. p(x)∈F[x] β‡’ βˆƒ! (up to isomorphism) K s.f. of p(x). Th. E = F(Ξ±)/F, Ξ± algebraic over F, f ∈ F[x] irred. Ξ± over F, Ξ¦:F β†’ K homom. If Ξ² ∈ L (L/K) root of Ξ¦(f) β‡’ βˆƒ! extension of Ξ¦, Ξ¦':Eβ†’L such that Ο•'(Ξ±) = Ξ² and fixes F. Read more... 1709 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Extension Theorems II

L/K algebraic extension, every Ξ¦:Kβ†’C field homomorphism where C is an algebraically closed field, can be extended to a homomorphism L β†’ C. Th. i:Kβ†’L homomorphism s.t. L/i(K) is an algebraic extension. If Ο•:Kβ†’C field homomorphism & C is an algebraically closed field β‡’ βˆƒ Οƒ:Lβ†’C field homomorphism s.t. Οƒ β—¦ i = Ο•. F is algebraically closed β†­ βˆ€f(x) ∈ F[x], f factors into linear polynomials. An algebraically closed field has no proper algebraic extensions. All algebraic closures of a field are isomorphic. Th. Every F-homomorphism between K to itself is an isomorphism. Read more... 2207 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Algebraic Extensions. Characterization of field extensions.

Ξ± ∈ E algebraic, E/F β‡’ its minimal polynomial is prime. Characterization of field extensions, E/F, Ξ± ∈ E. Ξ± transcendental over F then F(Ξ±) ≋ F(x). Ξ± algebraic over F β‡’ F(Ξ±) ≋ F[x]/⟨p(x)⟩ where p(x) is a unique monic irreducible over F (ker(Ξ¦)=⟨p(x⟩), and a polynomial in F[x] of minimum degree such that p(Ξ±) = 0. Th, L/K, Ξ± ∈ L, Ξ± is algebraic over K β†­ Ξ± is in a finite extension of K. Th. F field, p(x) ∈ F[x] - F β‡’ the ring F[x]/p(x) is a field β†­ p is irreducible Read more... 1837 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Algebraic Extensions II. Primitive Element Theorem

Primitive Element Theorem, F field, char(F) = 0, a and b algebraic over F β‡’ βˆƒc ∈ F(a, b) s.t. F(a, b) = F(c). Algebraic over Algebraic is Algebraic. If K is an algebraic extension of E and E is an algebraic extension of F β‡’ K is an algebraic extension of F. Given a field extension E/F β‡’ the elements of E that are algebraic over F form a subfield (the algebraic closure of F in E). A field K is algebraically closed if βˆ€f(x) ∈ K[x] \ K has a root in K β†­ βˆ€f(x) ∈ K[x] irreducible, f has degree 1. Th, f(x)∈F[x], deg(f)=n. K s.f. f(x) over F β‡’ [K:F] ≀ n! Read more... 1795 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, Apr 14, 2022.

Finite Fields

A field is a prime field β†­ it has no proper subfields. The characteristic of a finite field has to be a prime number. Th, F finite field of characteristic p β‡’ |F| = pⁿ. Every field F is either an extension of β„š or β„€β‚š, p prime. Freshman's Dream or Exponentiation, R commutative ring with unity of characteristic p β‡’ (a + b)α΅–^ⁿ = aα΅–^ⁿ + bα΅–^ⁿ. f(x) ∈ F[x] is separable if its roots are distinct in the s.f. of f(x). E/F separable, βˆ€a ∈ E, a is the root of a separable polynomial in F[x]. Th, F field, f(x) ∈ F[x] β‡’ f is separable β†­ (f, f') = 1. Read more... 1680 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Finite Fields 2

Classification of finite fields. There exist a unique finite field F of order pⁿ, up to isomorphism & F ≋ s.f. xα΅–^ⁿ-x over β„€β‚š. A field of order pⁿ contains a field of order pᡐ iff m|n. Th. F field, G a finite subgroup of F* β‡’ G is cyclic. In particular, the multiplicative group of all nonzero elements of a finite field F* is cyclic. Read more... 1860 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Conjugacy Classes. The Class Equation.

a,b ∈ G conjugate if xax⁻¹ = b. cl(a) = {xax⁻¹ | x ∈ G}. If G is finite β‡’ |cl(g)| = |G:Z(g)|. If G is finite group β‡’ |cl(a)| | |G|. The Class Equation. G a nontrivial finite group. a₁, aβ‚‚, Β·Β·Β·, aβ‚– are the representatives of the conjugacy classes that have size > 1 β‡’ |G| = |Z(G)|+ Ξ£β‚–|G:C(aβ‚–)|. Every p-group has a nontrivial center. If G/Z(G) is cyclic β‡’ G is Abelian. If |G| = pΒ², p prime β‡’ G is Abelian. Read more... 1040 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Impossible Geometric Constructions.

Ξ± is constructible if and only if there is a tower of fields β„š = Fβ‚€ βŠ† F₁ βŠ†Β·Β·Β·βŠ† Fβ‚– βŠ†β„ such that Ξ± ∈ Fβ‚– & and Fα΅’ = Fα΅’βˆ’β‚(√aα΅’). If Ξ± is constructable β‡’ [β„š(Ξ±):β„š] = 2ᡏ. It is not possible to square the circle, double the cube, and trisect an angle. Read more... 1697 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cauchy and First Sylow Theorem.

Sylow’s First Theorem. G finite group, p prime. If pᡏ | |G| for k ∈ β„€ β‡’ βˆƒH ≀ G, |H| = pᡏ. A Sylow p-subgroup of G is a maximal p-subgroup of G, that is, pᡏ divides |G| and pᡏ⁺¹ does not divide |G|. Cauchy's Theorem. Let G be a finite group, p prime, p | |G| β‡’ βˆƒa ∈ G such that |a| = p. Read more... 1098 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, Jan 01, 0001.

Group Actions. The Fundamental Counting Principal.

X set, G group. A left group action of G on X is a map G x X β†’ X, (g, x) β†’ gΒ·x s.t. (i) Identity. βˆ€x ∈ X, eΒ·x = x; (ii) Compatibility. βˆ€x ∈ X, βˆ€g, h ∈ G, gΒ·(hΒ·x) = (gh)Β·x. A group G acts on itself by conjugation (gΒ·x = gxg⁻¹). Let X be a G-set. βˆ€x, y ∈ X, x ~ y β†­ βˆƒg ∈ G s.t. gΒ·x = y β‡’ ~ is an equivalence relation on X (G-equivalence). The equivalence classes are called orbits, where Oβ‚“ is the orbit containing x. The Fundamental Counting Principle. G be a group acting on X, x ∈ X β‡’ |Oβ‚“| = [G:Gβ‚“] Read more... 1193 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Some applications of Sylow’s Theorems

G has an unique subgroup H of a given order β‡’ H ◁ G. Corollary. A Sylow p-subgroup of a finite group G is normal β†­ it is the only Sylow p-subgroup. Th. H, K ◁ G, H ∩ K = {e}, and HK = G β‡’ G ≋ H x K. Th. p odd prime β‡’ there are only two groups of order 2p, β„€β‚‚β‚š and Dβ‚š. Read more... 2081 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Sylow Theorem II and III.

P Sylow p-subgroup, x ∈ G an element whose order is a power of p. If x ∈ N(P) β‡’ x ∈ P. Th, H, K ≀ G. The number of distinct H-conjugates of K = [H:N(K) ∩ H]. Sylow's Second Theorem. G finite, p | |G| β‡’ all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugates. Sylow's Third Theorem. G finite, p | |G| β‡’ the number of Sylow p-subgroups of G is congruent to 1 (mod p) and divides |G|. Read more... 2254 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Simple Groups

G simple β†­ it has no trivial, proper normal subgroups. H ≀ G Abelian β‡’ H ◁ G. G Abelian β‡’ G simple β†­ G is cyclic of primer order. N ◁ G & H ≀ G β‡’ N ∩ H ◁ H. βˆ€n β‰₯ 3, Aβ‚™ is generated by the set of 3-cycles. βˆ€n β‰₯ 5, all 3-cycles are conjugates. Aβ‚™, n β‰₯ 5 is a simple group. Read more... 1801 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

The Hunt for Non-Abelian Simple Groups.

A group G is simple if it has no trivial, proper normal subgroups. |G| = p, prime β‡’ G is simple. A finite p-group (|G| = pⁿ) cannot be simple unless it has order p. |G| = pΒ·q, p and q are distinct primes β‡’ G is not simple. Read more... 2323 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Symmetric Key Cryptography

Cryptography is the study of techniques to secretly obscure, store or communicate messages so outsiders cannot read the message. Symmetric key cryptography is any cryptographic algorithm that is based on a shared key that is used to encrypt or decrypt text. Caesar cipher is one of the earliest and simplest methods of encryption technique where each letter is replaced by another letter some fixed number of positions later in the alphabet. Public Key Cryptography. Read more... 2005 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Generators and Relations

The set of all equivalence classes of elements of W(S) is called the free group. The universal mapping property. Every group is a homomorphic image of a free group. Dick's theorem. G = ⟨a₁, aβ‚‚,..., aβ‚™ | w₁ = wβ‚‚ = ... = wβ‚œ = e⟩ and let create a new group by imposing additional relations, G' = ⟨a₁, aβ‚‚,..., aβ‚™ | w₁ = wβ‚‚ = ... = wβ‚œ = wβ‚œ+₁ = Β·Β·Β· = wβ‚œ+β‚– = e⟩ β‡’ G ≋ G' Read more... 3086 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Symmetry Groups

Symmetry Groups. Classification of isometries. Any planar isometry is either a rotation, a translation, a reflection about a line or a glide reflection. Every finite group G of isometries of the plane is isomorphic to β„€β‚™ or Dβ‚™. Read more... 3153 words,πŸ•”15 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Frieze and Wallpaper Groups

Frieze Groups. Wallpaper or crystallographic group. The collection of discrete frieze groups consists precisely of the following four groups, β„€, β„€βŠ•β„€β‚‚, D∞, and DβˆžβŠ•β„€β‚‚. There are 17 wallpaper symmetry groups. Read more... 1287 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Coding Theory

Binary Symmetric Channel. ASCII. The Hamming Metric. The Hamming distance is a metric in Fⁿ. Systematic code. Parity-Check Matrix Decoding. Orthogonality Lemma. Let C be a systematic (n, k) linear code over F β‡’ βˆ€v ∈ Fⁿ, v ∈ C β†­ vH = 0. Parity-check matrix decoding will correct any single error iff if the rows of the parity-check matrix are nonzero and no one row is a scalar multiple of any other. Coset Decoding. The coset decoding is the same as nearest-neighbor decoding. Read more... 5456 words,πŸ•”26 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Symmetry and Counting

The set of orbits of X under the action of G forms a partition of X. The stabilizers of elements in the same orbit are conjugate to each other. Burnside's Theorem. Read more... 2077 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cayley Diagraphs. Hamiltonian paths.

Cay({(1, 0), (0, 1) | β„€β‚˜βŠ•β„€β‚™) does not have a Hamiltonian circuit when m, n > 1 and gcd(m, n) = 1. Cay({(1, 0), (0, 1) | β„€β‚˜βŠ•β„€β‚™) has a Hamiltonian circuit when n divides m. Let G be a finite Abelian group and S any non-empty generating set for G. Then, the Cayley diagraph of G, Cay(S:G), has a Hamiltonian path. Read more... 1268 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Multivariable Calculus

Vectors

Vectors. Vector Arithmetic. Dot product. Properties. Solved exercises. Read more... 1212 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cross Products

Vectors II. Determinant in space. Cross products. Properties. Solved exercises. Read more... 1105 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Vectors II. The Dot Product.

Vectors. The Dot Product. Solved exercises. Read more... 2050 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Equations of Planes

Find the Equation of a Plane Given Three Points. Vectors and the Geometry of Space. Solved exercises. Read more... 1506 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Matrices

Rotation Matrices. Inverse matrix. Properties. Solved exercises. Read more... 2243 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Systems of Linear Equations.

Equations of planes. Solving Systems of Linear Equations. Exercises of vectors and planes. Read more... 1785 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Parametric equations for lines and curves.

Parametric equations for lines and curves. Graphing a Parametrically Defined Curve. Eliminating the Parameter. Read more... 1958 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Systems of Linear Equations II

Equations of planes. Solving Systems of Linear Equations. Exercises of vectors and planes. Read more... 2210 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Functions of two variables.

Functions of two variables. Read more... 1473 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Partial derivatives

Partial derivatives. Approximation problems. Least Squares Interpolation. Moore's Law. Read more... 2203 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Velocity and Acceleration.

Definition and Properties of Vectors in Motion. Read more... 2056 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Second derivative test

Second derivative test Read more... 1865 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Total differential

Total differential Read more... 722 words,πŸ•”4 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Directional derivatives

Directional derivatives. Solved exercises. Read more... 2151 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Gradient vector

The Gradient Vector is Perpendicular to Level Surfaces. Solved exercises. Read more... 2357 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Lagrange Multipliers

Lagrange Multipliers. Solved exercises. Read more... 2086 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Double integrals

Double integrals. Solved examples. Exchanging order of integration. Read more... 1981 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Non-independent variables

Non-independent variables. Partial differential equations Read more... 2584 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Applications of Double Integrals

Area Region. Volume under Surface. Average Value Function. Total mass of an object over a region. Center of Mass. Moments of inertia. Read more... 2216 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Double integrals in Polar Coordinates

Double integrals in Polar Coordinates Read more... 2091 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Change of variables in double integrals

Change of variables in double integrals Read more... 2126 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Vector fields

Vector fields Read more... 1663 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Conservative vector fields

Path Independence in Conservative Vector Fields. Equivalent Properties of Conservative Vector Fields. Curl and Torque Read more... 2023 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Find potential functions for conservative fields

Finding a potential function for conservative vector fields. Solved exercises. Read more... 2076 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Green's theorem

Green's theorem. Fully Explained. Step by Step examples. Read more... 1854 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Surface Integrals of Vector Fields. Flux.

Surface Integrals of Vector Fields. Flux Form of Green's Theorem. Explanation of divergence. Limitations of Green's Theorem. Read more... 2226 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 18, 2022.

Surface Integrals of Vector Fields. Flux. II

Example with a Non-Simply Connected Region. Definition and Importance of Simply Connected Regions in Green's Theorem. Why Simply Connected Regions Matter. Criteria for Conservative Fields. Solved mixed exercises. Read more... 1895 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 18, 2022.

Triple Integrals

Triple Integrals. Solved Exercises. Applications. Read more... 1171 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Triple Integrals 2. Application.

Triple Integrals. Solved Exercises. Applications. Read more... 1629 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Spherical coordinates

Spherical coordinates. Solved Exercises. Applications. Calculation of Gravitational Force Exerted by an object. Read more... 1780 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Vector fields & flux 3D

Vector fields in 3D. Flux in 3D. Solved Exercises. Read more... 2448 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Vector fields & Flux in 3D II

Vector fields & flux in 3D. Solved Exercises. Explanation of Surface Area Elements Using Normal Vectors. Read more... 2222 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

The Divergence Theorem

The Divergence Theorem. Solved Exercises. The diffusion equation Read more... 2798 words,πŸ•”14 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Curl in 3D

Curl in 3d, definition and solved exercises. Conditions for a Vector Field to be Conservative. Read more... 1639 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Line integrals in space

Line integrals in space. Solved Exercises. Test for conservative fields. Find potential functions. Read more... 2701 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Stoke's Theorem

Stoke's Theorem. Proof. Orientation and the Right-Hand Rule. Intuitive explanation. Solved Exercises. Comparing Stokes’ Theorem with Green’s Theorem. Read more... 2257 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Stoke's Theorem II

Stoke's Theorem II. Solved Exercises. Read more... 2136 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Stoke and Surface Independence

Stoke and Surface Independence Read more... 1462 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Faraday's law. Maxwell's equations

Faraday's law. Maxwell's equations. Read more... 621 words,πŸ•”3 minutes read, May 17, 2022.

Topology

Topology Spaces

Topology Spaces. Definition and examples. Read more... 1999 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Convergence

Limit and isolated points. Dense sets. Convergence of sequences. Read more... 426 words,πŸ•”2 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Linear Algebra

System of linear equations

Topology Spaces. Definition and examples. Read more... 1085 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Solving Linear Equation over a Field

Fields. Read more... 596 words,πŸ•”3 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Linear Transformations

Fields. Read more... 634 words,πŸ•”3 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Fundamentals. Algebra.

Fundamentals. Algebra. Read more... 5182 words,πŸ•”25 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Abstract Algebra V. Galois Theory

Group Characters. Fixed Fields

Fixed fields. Character of a group. Independence of field homomorphisms. Mutually distinct characters of a group in a field are independent. Frobenius homomorphism. Read more... 2220 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Theorem on fixed fields

Degree of the fixed field extension is at least the number of homomorphisms Read more... 1914 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Automorphisms. Galois extensions and groups

The Galois group of E over F is the set of all automorphisms of E which fix F. E/F, f(x) a minimal polynomial of Ξ± ∈ E β‡’ Any automorphism Οƒ ∈ Gal(E/F) induces a permutation of the set of zeros of f. Order of Galois Group equals degree of extension. Read more... 2361 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Galois extensions and groups II

Galois extensions. Galois groups. If F is the fixed field of G β‡’ G = Gal(K/F) = Gal(K/K^G). Read more... 1432 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Normal extensions

Equivalence of Definition of Normal Extensions. A field extension of degree 2 is a normal extension. Read more... 2281 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Normal extensions 2

K/F normal, F βŠ‚ L βŠ‚ K β‡’ K/L normal and L/F is normal β†­ if Οƒ(L) βŠ† L. Intersection and composite are normal. E/F finite extension, then exists a normal closure N. Read more... 2611 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Computing Galois group. Determine Galois and normal extension.

Exercises. β„š(i), x^4+4, β„š(√2, i), Q(ΞΆ8), β„š(√3,√5), β„š(βˆ›2), β„š(βˆ›5, √7), β„š(∜5). Read more... 2126 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Separable extensions

Derivate of a polynomial. Zeros of an irreducible polynomial. Criterion for multiples zeros. Bezout's identity in F[x]. Perfect fields. f is separable β†­ (f, f') = 1. If char(F) = 0, F is a finite field, or perfect β‡’ every polynomial in F[x] is separable. Read more... 2299 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Computing Galois group II. Determine Galois and normal extension.

Exercises. β„š(√2,√3), β„š(βˆ›2, w), β„š(√2,√3,√5), β„š(∜2), Fq. Read more... 2781 words,πŸ•”14 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Separable extensions II

In positive characteristic fields, there exist inseparable irreducible polynomial. Separability of towers (F βŠ† K βŠ† L), L/F is separable β†­ L/K and K/F are separable. Read more... 2283 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Characterization of Galois extensions

K/F is Galois iff K is the splitting field of a separable polynomial over F Read more... 3366 words,πŸ•”16 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Galois extension II. Exercises.

F βŠ† L βŠ† K are field extensions, K/F Galois β‡’ K/L is Galois. Every finite separable field extension K/F can be extended to a Galois extension. A normal extension does not need to be Galois. If a polynomial has degree 2 or 3 and has no roots over a field F, then f is irreducible in F[x]. Read more... 1302 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Motivating the fundamental theorem of Galois Theory

There is a bijection correspondence between the intermediate fields of the extension K/F and the Galois subgroups. All extensions of finite fields are cyclic. A normal extension does not need to be Galois. Read more... 2017 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory

Main theorem of Galois theory. Read more... 1815 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory II.

There are only a finitely many intermediate fields of finite field separable extensions. Read more... 1056 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Consequences Galois III. Exercises. β„š(√2+√3+√5).

Let K/β„š be a normal extension, |Gal(K/β„š)|=8 and Οƒ^2 = id βˆ€Οƒ ∈Gal(K/β„š), Οƒ β‰  id. Find the number of intermediate fields. Read more... 2258 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Consequences Galois: Fundamental Theorem of Algebra

A degree 2 extension can be obtained by adding a square root of an element of F. Let K/F be a Galois extension such that G = Gal(K/F) ≋ S3 β‡’ K is s.f. of an irreducible cubic polynomial over F. L1, L2 Galois extensions β‡’ L1 ∩ L2 is also Galois. Read more... 1838 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Consequences Galois II. Exercises.

Splitting fields of x^3 -2 over F2, F3, F5 and F7. Read more... 1222 words,πŸ•”6 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Kummer extensions

K/F is a Kummer extension, i.e., βˆƒa ∈ F, x^n-a is an irreducible polynomial and K is the splitting β†­ K/F is a cyclic extension. Read more... 2416 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Cyclotomic extensions and polynomials

K/F s.f. x^n-1 over F, there exists an injective homomorphism Gal(K/F) β†’ (β„€/nβ„€)*. K/β„š is the s.f. of x^n -1, then Gal(K/F) ≋ (β„€/nβ„€)*. Abel's Theorem. Read more... 3709 words,πŸ•”18 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Solvability by radicals

(Simple) Radical extensions. A degree six Galois extension is solvable. Cyclic extensions are solvable. Read more... 1853 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Characterizations of solvability. Cubic polynomials.

Different characterizations of solvability, Abelian, cyclic extensions, roots of unity. Cubic polynomials. Read more... 2387 words,πŸ•”12 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Characterizations of solvability II. Discriminants.

Galois group of a polynomial. The Galois group of f is a subgroup of Sn. f is irreducible β†­ Gal(f) is transitive subgroup Sn. If Ξ΄ ∈ F (Ξ” is a square in F), then G βŠ† An. Otherwise, G ⊊ An. Read more... 1832 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Quartics are solvable

Quartic polynomials are solvable. Discriminants. Resolvent cubics. g(x) ∈ F[x]. Disc(f) = Disc(g) and Ξ²i are all distinct. Read more... 2186 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Solvable groups. Galois' theorem.

Solving polynomials by radicals. Sn is not solvable nβ‰₯5. Galois' theorem (G = Gal(f) is solvable β†­ f is solvable -by radicals-). f polynomial, deg(f)≀4 β‡’ f is solvable. Read more... 2748 words,πŸ•”13 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Composite fields

The composite of two radical extensions is radical. The composite of Galois extensions is Galois. Degrees of Composites. A radical extension can be extended to be both Galois and radical. Read more... 1495 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Solvable groups II.

Burnside's Theorem for p-Groups. Every p-group is solvable. |G| = p^kΒ·q^s, p and q prime numbers, and 1 mod p β‰  q^t for t = 1Β·Β·Β·s, then G is solvable Read more... 862 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Insolvability of quintics.

Let f be an irreducible polynomial of degree 5 over a subfield F of the complex numbers whose Galois group is either A5 or S5, then f is not solvable. Read more... 1683 words,πŸ•”8 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Insolvability of quintics II.

Sn can be generated by a n-cycle and a transposition. An irreducible polynomial of degree p over β„š, p β‰₯ 5, with three real roots. Then, Gal(f) ≋ Sp, so it is not solvable. General quintic polynomials are not solvable by radicals. Read more... 1443 words,πŸ•”7 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Computing Galois groups. Degree 2 and 3.

If f irreducible quadratic with exactly two real roots, then Gal(f) = S4 or D4. If one root of f irreducible is solvable over F (βŠ† β„‚), then f is solvable. Read more... 900 words,πŸ•”5 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Computing Galois groups II. Quartics and beyond.

If g splits completely in F β†­ G = D2. If g has exactly one root in F β†­ G = D4 or C4. g is irreducible β†­ G = S4 or A4. Resolvent cubic. Read more... 2039 words,πŸ•”10 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

Every finite Abelian group is realized as a Galois group over β„š.

Every finite Abelian group is realized as a Galois group over β„š. Find a degree 4 (n) extension of β„š with no intermediate field. Every finite group is isomorphic to some Galois group for some finite normal extension of some field. Read more... 2167 words,πŸ•”11 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

A5 is simple. Primitive element theorem.

All cycles of the same length in Sn are conjugate. A3 is generated by 3 cycles. All 3-cycles are conjugate in An. Primitive element theorem, K/F finite extension is primitive β†­ βˆƒ only finitely many subfields. A finite separable extension K/F is primitive. Read more... 1713 words,πŸ•”9 minutes read, May 14, 2022.

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