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How to fix your computer

Troubleshooting is a systematic approach to problem-solving that is often used to find and correct issues with computers. Troubleshooting 

Recover your data

Basic Troubleshooting

Let’s start with the obvious:

  chkdsk c: /f /r /x # /f fixes errors on the disk. /r locates bad sectors and recovers readable information. /x Forces the volume to dismount first, if necessary. 

Windows will complain that the drive is locked. It will ask you to execute ScanDisk on next reboot.

Check your hard drives on MacOS. Launch Disk Utility (/Applications/Utilities), select the hard drive from the left side menu (e.g., Macintosh HD), and smash the Fist Aid tab.

  diskutil list # List your disks.
  diskutil verifyDisk /dev/yourDisk # Verify the partition map layout of a disk intended for booting or data use on a Macintosh
  diskutil repairDisk /dev/yourDisk # Repair the partition map layout of a disk intended for booting or data use on a Macintosh


  sudo apt install smartmontools # Install the smartmontools package for your system. If you are an Arch user, sudo pacman -S smartmontools.
  lsblk # List your hard drives.
  sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda # Check the health of your device
  1. Windows: Run ipconfig /all or Start, Settings, Network & internet. macOs/Linux: ifconfig (Installation: sudo apt install net-tools -Ubuntu-, sudo pacman -S net-tools -Arch-) or ip a ipconfig /all 

    IPv4 Address is your IP address. Default Gatework is your rounter’s IP address to which your network packages are sent. DNS servers translate names to IP addresses. DHCP Enabled means that the computer receives its IP from a DHCP server.

  2. Try another device, website (Is it down or just me helps you find out if a website is down for everybody or if it’s just you), and a different web browser. Besides, try a different Ethernet cable and a different wireless hotspot. Check all the cables are OK.
  3. Test your Internet speed: Speedtest by Ookla.
  4. Check your router and its LED status indicators. Typically, you just need to unplug it down, then plug it back in after a minute or two. Maybe, you will need to reset your router to its factory default configuration by using a paperclip to push the button hidden in a tiny hole at its back and holding it down for a few moments until the LED status go out and begin to reset.
  5. Clear your DNS cache (DNS servers map domain names to IP addresses): ipconfig /flushdns (Windows); sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder (macOS); sudo systemd-resolve ‐‐flush-caches (Ubuntu)


  1. Download Windows 11 Installation Media.
  2. Launch it. Accept the license terms. Then, select language, Windows Edition, and Architecture for the installation media. Choose which media to use: Select ISO file.
  3. Mount the iso: Once it is done, right click on the Windows.iso file, and select Mount.
  4. The previous step will create a virtual drive. Double click on the setup.exe file inside this virtual drive.
  5. Click on Change how Setup downloads updates, and then select Not right now.
  6. Ready to install. To recap, you’ve chosen to: Install Windows 11, Keep personal files and apps (it will hopefully keep your data).

Last resort: Factory reset your Windows computer

Rescue discs and troubleshooting tools

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