    # Drawing a square

Python Turtle is a great resource to encourage kids to learn basic programming. It can be used to draw various shapes and patterns on a canvas, get throw mazes, and create video games.

``````from turtle import * # It imports the turtle module.
def draw_square(side): # This function draws squares.
for i in range(4): # We repeat this process four times (a square has four equal sides)
forward(side) # The turtle moves forward.
right(90) # The turtle turns right 90 degrees counter-clockwise.
if __name__ == "__main__": # This is always the starting point.
draw_square(200)
`````` # Drawing a triangle

``````from turtle import * # It imports the turtle module.
def draw_triangle(side): # It draws triangles.
for i in range(3): # An equilateral triangle has three equal sides and angles.
forward(side) # The turtle moves forward.
right(120)  # The turtle turns right 120 degrees counter-clockwise.
if __name__ == "__main__": # This is always the starting point.
draw_triangle(200)
`````` The value 120 for the rotation angle is due to the fact that an equilateral triangle has three 60 degrees angles and 180 – 60 = 120.

# Drawing a polygon

``````from turtle import * # It imports the turtle module.
def draw_polygon(side, n): # It draws polygons.
color('red', 'yellow') # It sets the pen color and the fill color.
begin_fill() # It needs to be called just before drawing a shape to be filled.
for i in range(n):
forward(side) # The turtle moves forward.
right(360/n) # The turtle turns right 360/n degrees counter-clockwise.

end_fill()  # It fills the shape drawn after the last call to begin_fill()
exitonclick() # It pauses the execution of the program and waits for the user to click the mouse to exit.
if __name__ == "__main__": # This is always the starting point.
draw_polygon(200, 6)
`````` # Drawing an asterisk

``````def draw_asterisk():
right(30)
pensize(4)
for i in range(6):
forward(100)
backward(100)
right(60)
exitonclick()
if __name__ == "__main__":
draw_asterisk()
``````

# And a star

`````` def draw_star(side):
color('red', 'yellow')
pensize(4)
for i in range(5):
forward(side)
left(144)

exitonclick()
if __name__ == "__main__":
draw_star(200)
`````` # Random Drawing

``````def draw_random():
speed(0) # It sets the turtle's speed, 0 is the fastest.
colormode(255) # It sets the color mode.
my_random_direction = [forward, right, left, backward, circle, dot]
my_random_color = ["red", "blue", "green", "yellow", "purple", "orange"] # my_random_color is a list of color.

while True:
r = random.randint(0, 50) # It returns a random integer N in [0, 50].
color(random.choice(my_random_color)) # It sets a random color from my_random_color.
random.choice(my_random_direction)(r) # It sets the turtle to randomly move forward (forward(r)) or backward (backward(r)), turn right (right(r)) or left (left(r)), draw a circle (circle(r)) or a circular dot (dot(r)).

exitonclick()
if __name__ == "__main__":
draw_random()
`````` # Drawing a spiral

``````from turtle import * # It imports the module turtle
def draw_spiral():
speed(0) # It sets the turtle's speed, 0 is the fastest.
bgcolor('black') # It sets the background color to black.
colormode(255) # It sets the color mode.

# It is almost the same than drawing a square. We move forward, then right but instead of 90 degrees, just a little more 90.901.
for i in range(400):
color(random.randint(0,255), random.randint(0,255), random.randint(0,255)) # It sets a random color.
forward(50 + i)
right(90.901)

exitonclick()
if __name__ == "__main__":
draw_spiral()
`````` # Drawing a beautiful rainbow

`````` def draw_semicircle(c, radius):
color(c)
left(90)
circle(radius,180) # We only draw half a circle
penup()
circle(radius,180) # The turtle moves the second half of the circle, but we don't draw it.
right(90)
forward(20)
pendown()

def draw_rainbow():
myScreen = Screen() # It creates a turtle screen object.
myScreen.setup(600, 400) # It changes the size of the window.
myScreen.bgcolor('black')  # It changes its background color.
# We declare the colors of the rainbow in a list.
rainbow_colors = ['violet','indigo','blue','green','yellow', 'orange','red']
pensize(20)

for r in range(len(rainbow_colors)):
exitonclick()
if __name__ == "__main__":
draw_rainbow()
``````

This code is inspired by Bhutan python coders. It makes learning python programming very easy. Go to Tutorials, Turtle. # Racing Turtles

Let’s have some fun and add some racing turtles.

`````` class myTurtle(Turtle): # Our class myTurtle will inherit the properties and methods from the Turtle class
die = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
def __init__(self, color, shape, positionx, positiony):
super()._init__() # We call the constructor of the parent class from the constructor of the child class.
self.color(color) # It changes the color of our turtle.
self.shape(shape) # It changes the shape of our turtle: “arrow”, “turtle”, “circle”, “square”, “triangle”, “classic”.
self.penup() # Let's draw the finishing point. We don't want to draw when we are placing the turtle in the finishing point.
self.goto(300, positiony-40)
self.begin_fill()
self.pendown()
self.circle(40) # The turtle's finishing point is going to be a filled circle.
self.end_fill()

self.penup() # We don't want to draw when we are placing the turtle in its starting position.
self.goto(positionx, position)
self.pendown() # It will ensure the turtle draws when it is moving.
def win(self): # If the turtle's x-coordinate is greater than 290, the turtle has won.
if round(self.xcor()) >= 290: return True
else:
return False

def move(self): # The turtle moves forward ten times the die's result.
random_die = random.choice(self.die) # It returns a randomly selected element from 1 to 6.
self.forward(10 * random_die)
self.write(die_outcome) # It prints the die's result.

def race():
player_one = myTurtle("green", "turtle", -300, 100) # We create two instances of our class myTurtle.
player_two = myTurtle("blue", "turtle", -300, -100)
no_winner = True
while no_winner:
# We play the racing game as long as there are no winners.
if player_one.win(): # If player_one wins, the race is finished and we print a message.
print("Player One Wins!")
no_winner = False
elif player_two.win():
print("Player Two Wins!")
no_winner = False
else:
player_one_turn = input("Press 'Enter' to roll the die ")
player_one.move() # The turtle player_one moves.
player_two_turn = input("Press 'Enter' to roll the die ")
player_two.move() # The turtle player_two moves.

if __name__ == "__main__":
race() # Let's play the game.
`````` Bitcoin donation 