You may want to read our free ebook The Solar System for a brief introduction to this topic. The study of geology is the study of the Earth. The Earth is the fourth planet away from the Sun.
The Solar System is the sun and everything that orbits or moves around it due to its gravity. It includes:
The sun itself. It is a star made mainly out of hydrogen and helium. It is, by far, the biggest and heaviest celestial body in the Solar System. It contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System. It is not passive, it has flares and coronal mass ejections which are powerful eruptions of plasma on the Sun’s surface. These eruptions can have widespread impacts on Earth.
The planet Earth, the Moon , other planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto) and their satellites.
Celestia is a real-time space simulation that lets you explore our universe in three dimensions. It is free, open source and multiplatform.